Food begins its journey

into the body in the mouth. As we chew, we mechanically break down the food and mix it with saliva, which both provides lubrication for swallowing and helps to break down carbohydrate chemically, by the enzyme amylase. After this, the chewed food, called a bolus, is swallowed down the esophagus and then further broken down in the stomach. Protein is the primary foodstuff broken down in the stomach through mechanical churning and the action of digestive enzymes and stomach acid. The protein is broken down into strings of amino acids called peptides. Digestion further continues in the small intestine where enzymes work to break down fat and carbohydrate into smaller particles that your body can absorb, transport, and use for various functions. Dietary fat is broken down by enzymes called lipases into fatty acids and monoglycerides, and carbohydrate breaks down into simple sugars through amylase enzymes.