CanFitPro Study Exam

1: ATP-CP System
2: Lactic Acid or Glycolytic System
3: Aerobic or Oxidative
The study of how energy flows in the human body
The ability to do physical work
A state of stability or balance where all body functions occur easily and the demand for energy is comfortably met by the supply of available energy
Sum of all chemical reactions in the body that use or create energy
Fuel up to 10 seconds at maximal capacity.
Phase 1: 1 to 2 seconds at maximal effort - ATP splits -> ADP + P + Energy
Phase 2: ADP + CP + ATP + Creatine
Fuel up to 2 minutes at maximal intensity.
Glucose -> 2ATP + 2 LA + Heat
Lactic acidosis
Fuel for more than 2 minutes at submaximal intensity
Fuel for over 2 minutes during low intensity exercise
The point at which the body cannot supply enough ATP needed forcing the body to increase their contribution of ATP Lactate cannot be cleared.
The body consumes more oxygen at rest than it normally would have strenuous exercise known as EPOC
The heart and a network of arteries and viens
Four chambers work as a pump, the right atrium, and right ventricle work as the right pump collecting blood returning from tissues and to the lungs (Pulmonary Circulation)
The left atrium, and left ventricle receives blood from the lungs and distributes to tissues (Systemic Circulation)
Smallest and most numerous blood vessels
The result of blood being pumped out of the ventricles, exerting force against the arterial walls
Peak pressure, it is increased with exercise
The lowest number remains unchanged with exercise
The amount of blood that the left ventricle ejects in one beat. As individual becomes fitter ventricle becomes bigger and SV will increase
Q = SV x HR
The amount of blood that the heart ejects in one minute
Heart increase HR and SV, increases Q.
Increased blood supply to exercising muscles.
Vascontrition and blood are taken from areas that are not affected by exercise.
Increases Stroke Volume - Increased maximal cardiac output and delivery of oxygen nutrients.

Increased blood delivery - Greater amount of blood volume per beat.

Increased red blood cells - Increased amount of hemoglobin and hence oxygen carrying capacity

Increased capillary density - Better distributions of oxygen and nutrients to the working muscles as well as improved waste removal.

Increased size and number of mitochondria - Improved aerobic production of ATP.

Increased aerobic enzymes - Enhanced ability to utilize oxygen.
A number of times used per week.
Number of sessions client is willing to commit, family, work, financial and social constraints.
Client's current fitness level - recommend a slow increase.
Client's goal for cardiorespiratory conditioning - if weight reduction is a goal, recommend more frequent training along with health goals.
Workrate being performed.

HRMAX = 200 - AGE
Lower target HR = (220-AGE) x 55%
Upper target HR = (220-AGE) x 90%

Beginner = 55 - 65%
Intermediate = 65 - 75%
Advanced = 75 - 90%

Influenced by:
Clients experience:
Client's current fitness level:
Client's goals for cardiorespiratory training
Clients experience: Inexperienced clients 10-15 minutes
Client's current fitness level: Client's goals for cardiorespiratory conditioning
Clients experience: Beginners start on equipment that requires little knowledge
Clients current fitness levels: New clients should have movements that are in a vertical plane.
Clients goals: Clients working on improving conditioning can experiment on different types.
Frequency: 60% of V02max, 4 days a week
Time: 30 minutes, 3-4 times a week
Intensity: up to 80%
Type: ?
Frequency: 1-3 times a week
Intensity: 55-65% RPE 9-12
Time: 15-30 minutes
Type: Walk, bike, swim, water aerobic, fitness class
Frequency: 3-5 times a week
Intensity: 65-75% RPE 12-15
Time: 20-45 minutes
Type: Stairclimb, treadmill, fitness class, cycling, cross training
Frequency: 4-6 times a week
Intensity: 75-90% RPE 13-16
Time: 40-60 minutes
Type: Complex movements, sports, cross training, interval training
1: Protects organs and soft tissue
2: Red blood cell production
3: Reservoir of minerals
4:Attachments for muscles to produce movement
Long bones: Lever for movement.
Short bones: Strength to joints.
Flat bones: Site for muscle attachment and organ protection.
Irregular bones: Organ protecting and body support.
1: Abduction
2: Adduction
3: Circumduction
4: Medial and Lateral Rotation
5: Supination and Pronation
6: Inversion and Eversion
7: Elevation and Depression
1: Fibrous Joints
2: Cartilaginous Joints
3: Synovial Joints
1: Hinge - one direction - elbow/knee
2: Condyloid - two direction - wrist and ankle
3: Ball and Socket - three direction - shoulder and hip
Measurement of the range of motion
1: Reduce stress in exercising muscles
2: Assist with posture and balance
3: Reduces the risk of injury
4: Improve performance in every activity
Frequency: 4-7 days per week
Intensity: Never painful just light pull
Time: 5-10 minutes minimal
Type: Static and or Dynamic
Goal to overcome stretch reflex in one position.

Advantage: Can be used by anyone, easy to teach and very safe. Can be used in almost any environment.

Disadvantage: Only improves flexibility at a certain point to a certain degree. Limited improvement of ROM for athletes at multiple angles.
Stretching through movements.

Advantage: Extremely useful for increased flexibility for athletes and for warming up for activities. Can prepare joints for explosive movement.

Disadvantage: Should be used gradually, and only used by those who have been shown proper technique and sequence. Small trauma may occur over time from incorrect use.
1: Single versus multiple joint movements.
2: Position of the stretch.
3: Available ROM.
4: Length of the lever.
5: Degree of exercise difficulty.
6: Chosen stretching technique.
7: Effect of gravity.
1: Isotonic - Concentric
2: Isotonic - Ecentric
3: Isometric
CNS (brain and spinal cord)
PNS (all other nerves outside of the spinal cord and brain)
1: Slow Twitch
2: Fast Twitch
1: ATP produced at the fastest rate.
2: Contract quickly and produce a great deal of force, but fatigue easily.
3: Work anaerobically.
1: Contain lots of Mitochondria and capillaries for oxygen delivery.
2: Contract slowly and produce a smaller amount of forces than a fast twitch, but are resistant to fatigue.
3: Work Aerobically.
1: More motor units are involved in a contraction.
2: The motor units are bigger in size.
3: The rate at which the motor units is faster.
Resting length, actin and myosin lie next to each other.

Origin: C1-T12
Insertion: Clavicle and Scapula
Function: Elevation, aduction, depression and stability
Exercise: Seated Row

Origin: C7-T15
Insertion: Scapula
Function: Elevation of scapula
Exercise: Seated Row

Pectorals Major
Origin: Ribs
Insertion: Scapula
Function: Depression, abduction and protraction of scapula
Exercise: Dumbell Chest Press

Seratus Anterior
Origin: Ribs 1-8
Insertion: Scapula
Function: Abdiction or protraction of scapula
Exercise: Push-up Wall

Origin: Scapula and Clavicle
Insertion: Humerus
Function: Abduction, rotation, extension, horizontal abduction
Exercise: Seated Dumbell Lateral Raise

Origin: Scapula
Insertion: Humerus
Function: Flexion and Abduction
Exercise: Wood Chopper

Latissimus Dorsio
Origin: T6-S5
Insertion: Humerus
Function: Extension, adduction, medial rotation
Exercise: Machine Lat Pull-Down

Bicep Brachii
Origin: Scapula
Insertion: Radius
Function: Elbow flexion and supination of forearm
Exercise: Dumbell Curls
1: Muscle fiber size
2: Contractile strength
Coordination among muscle groups
Tendon and ligament contractile strength
Bone strength
Maximum amount of force a muscle or group can generate
The explosive aspect of strength, a product of strength and speed of movement.
The ability of a muscle to repeatedly exert force over a period of time.
1: Reduce overuse injuries.
2: Complements maintenance of a healthy body weight.
3: Makes everyday activities easier.
4: Improved core strength and posture.
5: Prevent osteoporosis.
6: Improved strength for cardiovascular exercise.
7: Improves sport performance.
8: Reduces loss of muscle mass due to inactivity.
1: Isometric - Static muscle contraction in which the length of the muscle does not change when force is applied.
2: Isotonic - Concentric and eccentric muscle movements.
3: Isokinetic - Done with specialized equipment controls the speed of movement.
1: Injury
2: Dissatisfaction or lack of enjoyment
3: Lack of results
4: Loss of clients
1: Program focus: Proper technique
2: Workouts: 2-3 times
3: Intensity less than 70% of 1RM
4: Result: Muscular endurance
5: Reps: 12-15
6: Sets: 1-3
7: Rest: 30seconds to 1 minute
8: Equipment: Machines, body weight and stability ball
9: Routine: Total body balanced workout
1: Program focus: Refine technique, new exercise, core, muscular strength and variety
2: Workouts: 3-4 times
3: Intensity: 70-80% 1RM
4: Result: Muscle strength and hypertrophy
5: Reps: 8-12
6: Sets: 1-4
7: Rest: 30seconds to 2 minute
8: Equipment: Weight pully machine, free weights, body weight and stability ball
9: Routine: Total body, split program, 2 muscle groups per workout
1: Program focus: Variety, increase in muscle size, core strength, increased training time
2: Workouts: 4-6 times
3: Intensity: 80-100% 1RM
4: Result: Muscle strength and power
5: Reps: 1-8 reaching failure
6: Sets: 1-6
7: Rest: 2+ minutes
8: Equipment: Weight machines, pulleys, free weights, body weights, stability and med ball
9: Routine: Split, circuit, pyramids and modifications
Mechanical and Systemic
Damage to musculoskeletal system due to mechanical action or motion
Result of a disease, infection or medical condition
1: Acute - application of a single force
2: Overuse - repetitive loading
Immediate pain, stiffness, muscle spasm
Immediate swelling at the injury
1: Professional medical opinion
2: Rest
3: Ice
4: Compression
5: Elevation
Those that affect the tensile strength of a tissue during exercise and increase the risk of injury.
The client's physical status include environmental factors.

1: PAR-Q, interview and assessment
2: Determine safe and appropriate dose
3: Proper instructions and technique
4: Ensure client can properly execute exercises independently
Low-grade discomfort during activities and during daily exercises
Alteration of biomechanics, swelling, loss of pain-free motion, and tenderness with touch
1: Modify their training program
2: Explore changes to technique and exercise
3: Monitor symptoms.
1: Men older than 45 and women older than 55
2: Family history of heart disease
3: Smokers
4: High blood pressure
5: High Cholesterol
6: Sedentary lifestyle
Answer YES to one or more questions on the PAR-Q
1: Determining individual health status
2: Determining counterproductive lifestyle habits
3: Determining strengths and weakness
4: Isolating injuries
5: Individualization of exercise
6: Establishing baseline
7: Motivating clients
1: Resting Heart Rate
2: Resting Blood Pressure
3: Bosy composition
4: Cardio vascular fitness (Rockport walking fitness test)
5: Evaluation muscular and endurance
6: Flexibility
Rockport walking fitness test
1: Grip test
2: 10 rep maximum test
3: Compare it to average population data
1: Push-up protocol
2: Abdominal curl-up protocol
1: Sit and reach test
2: Shoulder flexibility test
1: Client factors
2: Equipment used
3: Personal trainer skill
4: Environmental factors
1: Safe
2: Effective
3: Efficient
4: Enjoyable
Systematic organization of training periods to facilitate the most efficient path from goal setting to goal attainment
1: Stimulus
2: Fatigue
3: Compensation
4: Super-compensation
5: Involuation
6: Homeostasis
Largest component of the periodized program, several months to several years
Intermediate component of training cycle, 1 to several months
Smallest component, 1 to several weeks
1: Information gathering
2: Prioritization of program goals
3: Creation and evaluation of the program
4: Delivery of the program
5: Re-assessment
1: Superset: Two or more sets are combined with little or no rest for the same or different muscle groups
2: Drop sets: The weight used for a given exercise is reduced when exhaustion is reached
3: Pyramids: Multiple sets are combined in an ascending or descending fahion
4: 21's: Stimulate upper and lower half of the body through movements
5: Staggered sets: A set of exercise is performed between sets for a particular muscle group
6: Circuit Training: Combined sets with little rest in between
7: Slow: Going slow on reps more time with concentric and eccentric
1: Knowledgeable
2: Supportive
3: Model of healthy behavior
4: Trustworthy
5: Innovative
6: Patient
7: Sensitive
8: Flexible
9: Sel-aware
10: Able to acess material and resources
11: Able to generate expextations of success committed to providing timely and specific feedback
12: Capable of providing clear, reasonable intructions and plans
1: Precontemplation
2: Contemplation
3: Preparation
4: Action
5: Maintenance
Relationship orientated
1: Provides established clients
2: Working at hourly wage can provide money before having clients
3: Access to equipment
4: Minimal financial risk
5: Club will assist you in making and selling clients
6: Administrative support
7: Insurance
1: Revenue split with club
2: Have other duties with the club
3: Hours may not be flexible
4: You are accountable to your coordinator
5: You are competing with other trainers for business
1: Company helps you attract clients
2: Studio has equipment you need
3: Insurance is provided
4: Training offered by company
1: Split profits with company
2: Limited equipment
3: Someone else is boss
4: Hours may not be flexible
1: Self employed
2: Set own hours
3: Don't have to share revenue
4: You control how business is run
1: Start up expenses
2: Find own clients
3: Financial risks
4: Business skills or hire someone
5: Purchase insurance
Direct mail
Print or ad space
Electronic mail
General networking
Guerilla marketing
Media outreach
You are in 8-12 minutes
1: Focus on prospective clients and what they want
2: Show them how you can help them achieve their goals
3: Develop an action plan that outlines what you will do and the results will see
4: Ask for feedback on the plan
5: Present your prices
6: Overcome any objections
7: Follow-up